People think that poetry is just a collection of words which rhyme but poetry is much more than that.
Poetry is a form of literature or art which uses aesthetic and rhyming qualities of language to evoke meanings.
A poem may include multiple rhymes, symbolism, metaphors, simile, irony and many others parts of speech to invoke many different meanings based on the reader.
The history of poetry:
Poetry was used in ancient times and it proved the literacy that existed during those days. The existence of poetry dates back to 1700 BC where Indian Vedas contained a large amount of text written in poetic form so it would be easier to memorize and remember.
The oldest surviving epic poem is the Epic of Gilgamesh, from the 3rd millennium BC in Sumer (in Mesopotamia, now Iraq), which was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, papyrus.
Types of poetry:
Though there are thousands of types of poetry but the most common types are:
1) Sonnet –or more commonly known as the 1-2 1-2 rhyme.
Example: – From fairest creatures we desire increase,
That thereby beauty’s rose might never die,
But as the riper should by time decease,
His tender heir might bear his memory:
But thou contracted to thine own bright eyes,
Feed’st thy light’s flame with self-substantial fuel,
Making a famine where abundance lies….
The following is written by Shakespeare who is one of the world’s most famous sonnet writer.
2) Tanka – Tanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry in the form of a -7-5-7-7 pattern.
Example :- Pretty colored trees
That are orange, red and yellow
In the Autumn air
An old barn by the water
With a white fence around it.
As you can see, in line one and line three of a tanka poem there are five syllables. Lines two, four and five all have seven syllables. This equates to thirty one total syllables in the poem.
3) Haiku – Haiku is a popular form of unrhymed Japanese poetry in the 5-7-5 pattern. A Haiku consists of 3 lines and 17 syllables.
Example :- The sky is so blue.
The sun is so warm up high.
I love the summer.
Haiku poems don’t need to rhyme, but for more of a challenge some poets try to rhyme lines 1 and 3.
Genres of poetry :
- Narrative Poetry – in which the poet narrates a story through the poem.
- Epic Poetry – consists of lengthy poems describing the events of a heroic or important nature to a particular culture or time.
- Dramatic Poetry – is drama written in verse which is usually read out aloud or sang .
- Satirical Poetry – Poetry is often written in satirical forms regarding political or religious beliefs.
- Light Poetry – humorous poetry including the use of metaphors or puns for the purpose of making the reader laugh.
- Lyric Poetry – personal poetry describing one’s feelings or state of mind or personal experience.
- Elegy – is a mournful , melancholy poem lamenting for the dead.
- Verse Fable – is an ancient literary genre which is written about inanimate objects.
- Prose Poetry – is a hybrid poetry which shows attributes of both poetry and prose and usually same as flash-fiction/ short stories.
- Speculative Poetry – is a genre of poetry regarding supernatural objects or things which are ‘beyond reality’.